English Teaching - How to introduce Sentences at Primary Level Hand Book

Teaching English- How to introduce Sentences at Primary Level Hand Book, How to Introduce Sentences for Elementary Children and Download English Hand Books Level I Level II and Level III for English Sentences.
Teaching of English at the primary level is a worldwide phenomenon. In India, the teaching of English and its introduction have received great attention. Many states have already introduced or want to introduce English as a subject in primary classes, often from class I. The level of its introduction has now become a matter of state policy responding to people’s aspirations. The goals of English language learning at primary level are twofold: attainment of a basic proficiency, as is acquired in natural language learning and development of language into an instrument for knowledge acquisition.

English in India is one of the main communication languages in a multilingual country. It is a symbol of participation in national and international life. The Position Paper on Teaching of English, the syllabi and textbooks at the primary level recommend that the children’s life in school be linked to life outside the school. They also discourage rote learning and recommend an integrated approach to teaching at primary level.

NCERT, an apex body for school education in the country was commissioned by MHRD during 2009-10 for conducting a study on Teaching of English in Government Schools at the Primary Level in India. As state after state has been introducing teaching of English from class I, the pace at which the materials have been prepared and the teacher preparation required has raised many concerns. Challenges for teacher education and planning have been addressed in this study. The English teaching and learning in 8 States/UTs having different state languages and varied cultural influences have been studied. The common practices in these states have also been documented in the study.

The eight chapters in this study focus on English language teaching, classroom practices, teacher development and preparation. Effort has been made to reflect on the historical context, the present situation and the implementation. The practical suggestions given at the end can be of use to the different states in improving teaching of English at the primary stage.

The study has been completed with the cooperation of SCERTs, SPD offices, DIETs, and schools in the 8 States/UT. The state coordinators have made significant contribution in preparation of the state reports. It is hoped that findings of the study will be useful for all pedagogical institutions (SCERTs, DIETs, Schools) and to educational planners and administrators.

Classroom Processes
  • Observation of classroom processes in the selected States/UT brought to the light some salient points, which are summarized below:
  • In the states like Nagaland and Kashmir where the medium of instruction is English as per state policy, teachers were seen to resort to regional/ local languages to facilitate child’s learning.
  • In all the states, as regards the skills of Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing (LSRW), it was seen that the teachers’ effort to develop skills of listening and speaking was not there. Emphasis was more on developing reading and writing skills. Teachers felt that listening and
  • speaking get covered in reading and writing.
  • The teachers in all the states/UT have fallen into what is called “The Textbook Trap”, instead of treating the textbook as a tool, the teachers and students were entirely dependent on the books, they adhere only to the written word and printed instructions. The teachers do not move beyond
  • the textbooks.
  • After going through primary classrooms in 8 states/UT, four practices were mainly observed through which a teacher develops reading skill amongst the students. These were: silent reading, choral reading, pair reading, and reading aloud. Amongst these practices, reading aloud
  • was preferred by nearly 80% of teachers whereas choral reading was being practised in about 10% of the cases and silent reading and pair reading in about 5% of cases each.
  • Teaching of writing skills was far from adequate in most of the states. Students in Maharashtra, Odisha, Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat, Nagaland and Uttar Pradesh just copy the text written by teachers on the blackboard. In Chandigarh and Tamil Nadu teachers gave some visual inputs before assigning writing tasks.
  • In all the states it was observed that poems were being taught line by line or word by word and not for appreciating the content.
  • Almost all the teachers taught grammar by making students memorize the rules and work on exercises. None of the teachers said that contextualising grammar teaching was the best method.
  • Participation of students in the learning process was less in all the states.
  • Most of the teachers gave and checked homework.
  • Technique in language teaching was not employed in an effective manner. In most of the classroom observations it was seen that the main focus in the class was on questions and answers. Mostly. the teacher asked the questions, students were not motivated to ask question,
  • this deprives the students of practice for communication, command and confidence. Across all
  • the states, just 5 to 10% of students asked questions.